Adults of S. frugiperda can be confused with those of S. exempta and S. littoralis. In S. frugiperda the veins of the hindwing are brown and distinct, and in the male forewing the pale orbicular stigma has a pronounced pale 'tail'; distally. In the male genitalia the valve is almost rectangular and there is no marginal notch at the position of the tip of the harpe; the female bursa lacks a signum. In Africa it can also be confused with S. exigua (IITA, 2016). An EPPO standard provides guidance for the identification of S. littoralis, S. litura, S. frugiperda and S. eridania (OEPP/EPPO, 2015); Brown and Dewhurst (1975) give details of the African species of Spodoptera, and Todd and Poole (1980) give keys to moths of the genus Spodoptera in the Western Hemisphere.